It was a typical Saturday in late January. My best friend was helping me install a laminate floor in our living room. We took a break to have lunch together, and chitchatted for a bit before he left. Four days later, I received a series of frantic text messages and phone calls. My friend had collapsed and had to be rushed to the hospital. The following day, I learned he had a rare and fast-growing form of cancer. Fortunately, he has responded well to treatment, and is expected to make a full recovery
My friend’s quick descent, from thinking he had a cold to being diagnosed with cancer, provided me with a radical wake-up call. Every morning for the next few weeks, the first thought that entered my mind was the fragileness of our earthly existence. We can go about our daily routines with no concern for the future, and then in an instant, our life can be utterly and irrevocably changed.
We have a common misconception that most people are not suffering through some trial. We all think that we have a great cross, be it a financial problem, health issue, death in the family, or trouble with children, but everyone else, we assume, has it good or at the very least better than we have it. The reality is that most people hide their struggles and sugarcoat their public persona, especially on social media.
Every one of us is constantly fighting through some trial, and if you’re fortunate enough to be in the midst of a short reprieve, thank God for the break but prepare yourself for the future. I am always surprised in my conversation with coworkers, students, friends and family members when I discover that individuals, who on the surface appear to have everything in order, are in fact facing great challenges. Yes, we all have our crosses to carry.
You cannot organize your life to remove all stress. You cannot gain peace through to-do lists. You cannot control your life to find perfect happiness. Any attempt to deal with life’s challenges in a worldly manner will fail. I foolishly think that if I could only get over the hurdle in front of me, then I could rest and relax, but I always find another hurdle immediately after it. The only way to find peace, happiness and joy is to give up the worldly rat race, surrender your will and trust in God.
My younger sister is a sister, more specifically a Sister of Life in New York City. She lived in the Bronx for several years, and she wears a full religious habit. A young sister strolling up and down the streets of New York City is quite the sight, and people frequently approach her with questions. She has quite the collection of stories.
Rather frequently, complete strangers come up to her, and share their problems with her. She has noticed there are two ways of thinking. One group believes that God is not good because of the bad things that happened in their life. They blame God for a death in the family or a bad financial decision. The other group believes they are not good because of something they did in their past, perhaps they had an abortion or a hostile relationship with a family member. When something bad happens in their life, they think God is punishing them for their past actions.
In both cases, these individuals have a poor relationship with God. They do not know who God is, what he wants for them, or how they can approach him. In her brief encounters, she immediately turns to the message of God’s mercy. She has a great devotion to St. Faustina, known as the Apostle of Divine Mercy, who she is also named after, and she had found that St. Faustina’s message is a perfect antidote for the modern, secular soul.
She quickly tells them that God is a loving father, who wants the best for them, and that everyone, no matter their past sins, is loved by God. He wants to forgive all their past evil actions, and draw them closer to His Divine Heart. Don’t fight God over present concerns, instead give them to him. Give him your worries over health, money, relationships and jobs. Place your trust in God.
My sister’s love for this message was forged in her own experiences. She had many questions about the will of God in her life, especially about her vocation. She was anxious and experienced great inner turmoil. It was only when she surrendered her will and placed her trust in God that she found peace and discovered her true vocation as a sister.
She frequently shared the same short speech about trusting in God, and she often wished that she had something in her hands that she could give to people. To that end, she composed a short Litany of Trust (see below), and now, she distributes it to the people she meets. This wonderful prayer will help you to rely more on Jesus and less on yourself. It will help you with your little struggles during the good times, but it will also provide you with great comfort and confidence in the heat of your greatest struggles.
Litany of Trust
From the belief that I have to earn Your love … Deliver me, Jesus.
From the fear that I am unlovable … Deliver me, Jesus.
From the false security that I have what it takes … Deliver me, Jesus.
From the fear that trusting You will leave me more destitute … Deliver me, Jesus.
From all suspicion of Your words and promises … Deliver me, Jesus.
From the rebellion against childlike dependency on You … Deliver me, Jesus.
From refusals and reluctances in accepting Your will … Deliver me, Jesus.
From anxiety about the future … Deliver me, Jesus.
From resentment or excessive preoccupation with the past … Deliver me, Jesus.
From restless self-seeking in the present moment … Deliver me, Jesus.
From disbelief in Your love and presence … Deliver me, Jesus.
From the fear of being asked to give more than I have … Deliver me, Jesus.
From the belief that my life has no meaning or worth … Deliver me, Jesus.
From the fear of what love demands … Deliver me, Jesus.
From discouragement … Deliver me, Jesus.
That You are continually holding me, sustaining me, loving me … Jesus, I trust in you.
That Your love goes deeper than my sins and failings, and transforms me …Jesus, I trust in you.
That not knowing what tomorrow brings is an invitation to lean on You … Jesus, I trust in you.
That You are with me in my suffering … Jesus, I trust in you.
That my suffering, united to Your own, will bear fruit in this life and the next …Jesus, I trust in you.
That You will not leave me orphan, that You are present in Your Church…Jesus, I trust in you.
That Your plan is better than anything else … Jesus, I trust in you.
That You always hear me, and in Your goodness always respond to me …Jesus, I trust in you.
That You give me the grace to accept forgiveness and to forgive others …Jesus, I trust in you.
That You give me all the strength I need for what is asked …Jesus, I trust in you.
That my life is a gift … Jesus, I trust in you.
That You will teach me to trust You … Jesus, I trust in you.
That You are my Lord and my God … Jesus, I trust in you.
That I am Your beloved one … Jesus, I trust in you.
April 03, 2017 01:19
By Dr. H. P. Bianchi
People pray during the Jan. 19 episcopal ordination of Bishop Adam J. Parker and Bishop Mark E. Brennan at the Cathedral of Mary Our Queen in Homeland. (Olivia Obineme/Special for the Review)
Tradition has a bad name. Catholic traditionalists are seen as rigid, bitter and judgmental. In political circles, individuals who hold traditional values are cast as fanatics and bigots, and in modern culture, traditionalists are depicted as reactionary and backwards.
Modern society values newness and change. The media celebrates revolutionaries and trendsetters, not people who defend the time-tested truths of previous generations.
Even in a world of constant flux, people are still drawn to tradition, and this inherent desire is displayed in growing countercultural movements that favor time-honored practices. The food industry has a niche for products made using traditional methods, artisanal cheeses and breads come to mind. Individuals are also rediscovering the joy in producing their own food and drinks with hobby farms and home brewing. People are also drawn to historical sites for vacations to experience traditional lifestyles, and antiques and historical items are popular features in home decor. Modern Americans desire tradition, but they are content with only small vestiges in their otherwise thoroughly modern life.
Tradition is an inescapable aspect of a Catholic mindset. It is not a trinket on the side, but a central element. We often label Catholics as liberal or conservative or progressive or traditional. However, tradition is synonymous with Catholic. To call someone a traditional Catholic is to be redundant.
The theological principle of Tradition (capital T), which upholds the authority of teachings outside of scripture, is a key tenant of the Catholic faith, but I would argue that the non-theological use of tradition (small t) is also a central aspect of Catholicism. In a more general sense, the word “tradition” comes from the Latin traditionem, which means "delivery, surrender, a handing down, a giving up,” and it means to pass down customs and beliefs from generation to generation.
A Catholic mindset rooted in tradition emphasizes the timelessness of truth. Catholics accept that truth is not contingent on a time period, and therefore, what was true in the past, is true today, and will be true in the future. Subsequently, the teachings of the church do not change. The church develops its teachings to confront challenges of the day or to address a heresy, but any development cannot contradict what has been taught by the church in the past. Therefore, one function of the church is to pass on timeless truths from one generation to the next.
The church also resists fads. The secular world is in constant flux, with values and beliefs incessantly changing. Amid the instability of the world, the church is an anchor, meant to hold one steady in the stormy sea of the world. The church is a destination to come to find calm and peace and escape the chaos of the time. It is not a place to fight for more change and chaos. Any church that seeks innovations to keep up with the times is subject to the world and not to God; such a church is a contradiction to its very nature.
A traditional mindset values the vast corpus of Catholic wisdom generated through the ages. Every generation of Catholics is tasked with preserving what is good and beautiful in the faith, and then passing it on to the next generation. The Catholic Church has 2,000 years of accumulated experience, and with each period, the level of knowledge grows deeper and richer. Catholic tradition begins with Jesus and the Apostles, and it was further developed by the Church Fathers, Doctors of the Church, and countless others. When encountering this abundant body of work, we have to wonder “who am I” to question this wisdom. Our first response to any theological question should be a spirit of deference to the brilliant and inspired minds of the past, not to discard them to the dustbin of history.
Reverence for tradition has always been part of God’s plan. In the Old Testament, stories were passed down orally and the Law was memorized by every generation. Jesus revealed the fullness of the faith to the Apostles, and they were charged to spread the Gospels throughout the world. From the Apostles, the faith spread to others, and as St. Paul writes, “So then, brethren, stand firm and hold to the traditions which you were taught by us, either by word of mouth or by letter.” (2 Thess 2:15) Without tradition, we would have no faith. Tradition is the very means of how it grows, and I would reason that churches that neglect their traditions died off and those that honor them prosper.
Tradition is a force of unity. One of the amazing aspects of the Catholic faith is that a Catholic can attend any parish across the world and find a similar experience, but this occurrence is contingent of the faithful passing down of traditions. In addition to Catholicism being unified across space, it is also unified through time. When we say a prayer or attend Mass, we are reciting the same prayers as previous Catholics have done over the last 2000 years. Tradition unifies Catholics with Jesus, but it also unites Catholics with all the saints over the history of the church.
One of the most common attacks on tradition is to point out the atrocities of the church in the past, and demand that the church modernize and get with the times. Yet, if you examine major outrages such as religious wars, slavery, racism, fascism, you will quickly note that these are not part of the Catholic tradition, but happened across religious lines. They occurred because Catholics forgot their traditional beliefs and succumb to popular and evil ideologies of the day. Traditional Catholicism is a safeguard against radical ideologies, not a cause of them.
Yes, tradition has a bad name, but has our faith improved in modern times, since tradition has been neglected? Or, do you feel like something is missing? Perhaps, it is time to give tradition another try.
Tradition is not blind acceptance of the past. Tradition is preserving what is the best and most beautiful, and handing it on to the next generation as a gift, and they would be wise to accept it.
January 25, 2017 12:37
By Dr. H. P. Bianchi
An image of Jesus is seen as Pope Francis greets a young woman during the World Youth Day welcoming ceremony in Blonia Park in Krakow, Poland, July 28. (CNS photo/Paul Haring)
My wife and I recently finished watching a series on Netflix. As with any well-written show, I found myself engrossed in the characters and storyline. Throughout the day, I caught myself thinking about the latest plot twist and counting down the hours to when I could watch the next episode.
In my last blog post
, I wrote that “Catholics no longer think like Catholics. They think like Republicans, Democrats, liberals, conservatives, socialists, or secularists, but not as Catholics.” What is the key to restoring a Catholic way of thinking? In short, Catholics must seek to think like Jesus.
And for me to think like Jesus, I need to replicate my experience of “binge watching” television shows such as "Lost," "Downton Abbey," "Blacklist" or more recently, "Stranger Things" by “binge meditating” on the life of Jesus. In the past, while commuting to work, sending an email, or watching the children, I was reviewing the latest episode of the show in the back of mind. As a Catholic, I need keep the mindfulness of a world beyond our present world, but replace the television show with the life of Jesus. In this process, my life will be less molded by the fictional characters of the newest hit show, and more by the life of Jesus.
The concept of imitating Jesus has a rich tradition in Catholicism. In the New Testament, St. Paul commented, “And you became imitators of us and of the Lord,” (1 Thessalonians 1:6) and St. Peter wrote, “For to this you have been called, because Christ also suffered for you, leaving you an example, so that you might follow in his steps” (1 Peter 2:21). Saints built on this biblical tradition, and fully developed the idea of following Jesus. Famously, St. Francis of Assisi emphasized a literal imitation of Christ, and Thomas a Kempis wrote The Imitation of Christ
, perhaps the most popular devotional book ever on the concept.
Quite simply, Jesus is the model Christian. He is the paradigm. To follow in his steps, Catholics must immerse themselves in the life of Jesus. That is, they need to read and reflect on the Gospels. Often Gospel passages are plucked out of context to justify a position, but we are called to accept the whole Gospel, the parts that are easy to follow and the parts that hard to follow.
Beyond reading the Gospels, Catholics should mediate on the mysteries of his life – his birth, his death, his resurrection, with particular focus on a daily reflection on his passion and death. As Catholics become more aware of the life of Christ, they should have a greater sensitivity to the living like Jesus. It has become trendy to speculate “what would Jesus do?” but seeking to live out that simple phrase is the essence of being a Christian, uniting our will with the will of Jesus.
It can be intimidating to imitate Jesus. While he was fully human, he was also God. The gap between Jesus and humanity is vast, and it is hard to ascertain how we can be like Jesus. Moreover, Jesus lived in a different time and had a different vocation from most modern Americans. How does a modern, married, businessman model his life on Jesus? It is helpful to look at the lives of Mary and the saints. Mary is highest of all creatures, and Catholics understand her as means to become closer to Jesus. Mary’s life provides a perfect example of how we are called to unite with Jesus. In addition to Jesus and Mary, the saints provide further examples in numerous vocations, time periods, and locations. In the wisdom of the church, she provides the saints as tangible models to imitate the life of Christ. Therefore, the formation of a Christian mindset is aided by knowledge of the lives of saints, and reading their spiritual instructions.
Even with the examples of Mary and the saints, it is still difficult to imagine how we can become like Christ. Fortunately, God has done the majority of the work. The wonderful mystery of the Incarnation is that God became man, entering the world as a little and poor baby in Bethlehem. We do not have to cross the great abyss to encounter Jesus; he crossed it for us. During his life, humans were able to see God face to face. With his Ascension to heaven, however, Jesus did not leave us. God sent the Holy Spirit only 10 days later at the great feast of Pentecost, and he also left us the sacraments. Jesus is present to us in Mass, and in the Blessed Sacrament. We need to spend time with Jesus in order to become more like him, and for us, we are with Jesus through frequent reception of Holy Communion and visits to the Blessed Sacrament.
Catholics no longer think like Catholics because they do not think like Christ. We have immersed ourselves in the lives of politicians, celebrities and fictional characters rather than the life of Christ. We can restore a Catholic mindset by imitating Christ, which begins with reading the Gospels, studying the lives of Mary and the saints, and regular reception of Holy Communion and visits to the Blessed Sacrament.
September 06, 2016 10:08
By Dr. H. P. Bianchi
A world Youth Day pilgrim prays at Sacred Heart Church in Krakow, Poland, July 28. (CNS photo/Bob Roller)
Soon after the terrorist attack in Orlando, Catholic leaders, writers and commentators issued “Catholic” responses to the tragedy. The reactions to the violence, however, were often contradictory and the ensuring debate over whether Catholics should apologize was contentious. Bishops were pitted against bishops, cardinals disagreed with the pope and Catholic bloggers detailed every stage of the dispute.
A similar discord among Catholics can be found in opinions about the presidential election. Certain Catholic commentators claim that a Catholic could never vote for Trump, while others respond that a Catholic could never vote for Clinton. This sequence of disagreement is repeated with every major global event, political issue and election. These “Catholic” responses seem to betray more about the authors’ personal views than their Catholicism. The only common link among all these “Catholic public opinions” is the authors’ claims to be Catholic.
One cause of the bifurcation of Catholic viewpoints is the death of a collective Catholic mindset.
Catholics no longer think like Catholics. They think like Republicans, Democrats, liberals, conservatives, socialists or secularists, but not as Catholics.
In the past, historians attempted to categorize the collective thought of a historical group, and numerous books appeared detailing the Greek mind, the Victorian mind or the Islamic mind. Other scholars explored the Zeitgeist or the “spirit of the age,” trying to capture the essence of a particular time period. French historians in the mid-twentieth century looked at mentalite, which could be defined as the thoughts, values and beliefs of a shared community. German scholars used the term, Weltanschauung, or worldview, in an effort to describe the way an individual or group viewed life and the world.
Some Christian thinkers sought to borrow these theories from the social sciences and apply them to Christianity. Harry Blamires, a devout Anglican and friend of C. S. Lewis, wrote The Christian Mind, The Post-Christian Mind, and Recovering the Christian Mind. Monsignor Romano Guardini held the unique position at the University of Berlin of chair in the Philosophy of Religion and Catholic Weltanschauung, and prolifically wrote on the encounter of faith with the world. These past attempts to examine the fundamental aspects of a Christian mindset, however, have fallen from favor.
In the academic world, the broad categorization of a mentalite or zeitgeist is seen as an overgeneralization. Critics claim that no one can summarize millions of individual minds, and any attempt to draw a generalization would merely rely on stereotypes. Current academics seek to disrupt and complicate the standard categories, rather than reinforce them. They look for the female who challenges gender roles, or they highlight the young Muslim who promotes secularism.
From a popular perspective, a collective mentality has a negative connotation, connected to the ideas of herd-mentality or groupthink. This hostile attitude is manifest particularly in an older generation of Catholics who grew up in a church still promoting a traditional mindset but who came of age in a culture that promoted a modern, secular way of thinking. They can promptly recall memorized sections of the Baltimore Catechism, but jokingly refer to it as a form of brainwashing. Modern culture values critical thinking and individualism, and celebrates revolutionaries and trailblazers. Individuals who protest, contest, revolt and critique are praised; while those who uphold and defend are dismissed. All this, regardless, of the positions held. Thus, not only are the particular tenants of a Catholic mentality under attack, but the very concept that Catholics should think a particular way is questioned.
Preliminary steps to recover a Catholic mindset
In order to begin thinking like a Catholic, individuals must first reduce their exposure to secular mentalities. Modern American are inundated with beliefs and values hostile to a Catholic mindset, and Catholics need to limit this exposure, especially through the media — television, the Internet and movies. One, for example, cannot listen to heavy metal music or hip hop for hours, and then, attempt mental prayer. Your mind would be flooded with noise. Similarly, if one is inundated with the rhetoric of a secular mentality, you cannot turn it off, and think like a Catholic.
Secondly, a Catholic mindset must focus primarily on religious elements. In the last few decades, ambiguities have blurred the nature of the Catholic Church. Some see the Church as a place for fellowship. Others see the Catholic Church as an institution working for social justice and still others expect to be entertained at church. If a group of Catholics exclusively focus on any of these aspects, they will be an utter failure. Nonreligious institutions are far more proficient at entertaining or political activism.
Catholics need to focus on the church’s fundamental function, the salvation of souls. No secular institution offers this function. There is no competition in this endeavor, the most important task of the church. At its fundamental level, the Catholic mindset thus needs to exclusively focus on religious elements, without the political and social ambiguities.
The Catholic mindset should not seek to compromise on its principles. Progressive commentators often propose finding a theological meeting point between the Catholic worldview and the secular worldview, and they believe this shared intersection could become a place for dialogue. While it is necessary to engage with everyone, the purpose of the encounter for Catholics is to bring others to Christ, and not to change the tenants of the faith for the sake of dialogue.
Compromising the fundamentals of Catholicism will only hurt the church and fail to attract others to it. For current members, the result of a watered-down faith is lukewarm Catholics, who are ambivalent about their faith and immobilized. For those who are the object of the outreach, why would they be moved to join the Catholic Church? Who willingly makes the sacrifice to become Catholic for partial truths? It sounds like common sense, but the Catholic mindset should be unabashedly Catholic.
The only mechanism to ensure a unified Catholic mindset is to control membership. In every example, dissenters within an organization weaken the group. If the Republican Party is run by individuals espousing Democratic ideals, then the Republican Party will do poorly. If a pro-life group has members supporting abortion, they will be removed from the group. It makes no sense for members of an institution to not support its most basic ideals and principles. Yet, the Catholic Church has numerous Catholic politicians and individuals working at Catholic universities among many other Catholics who publicly denounce Catholic teachings.
In order to unify a Catholic mindset, those converting to Catholicism should go through a long process which instructs them in the faith and guarantees that they are serious about Catholicism, and not joining the faith for pragmatic reasons. More importantly, a second mechanism needs to be in place for adult Catholics, who were baptized as infants. The Catholic faith has clearly delineated teachings on numerous issues, and if a Catholic publicly denounces those teachings, then there must be some repercussion. If the church fails to correct erring Catholics, people will not know what Catholicism entails, resulting in confusion over what are the key elements of Catholicism.
Catholics often find it easy to compromise their positions, to water-down the faith in order to accommodate current trends in popular culture, and to ignore Catholics who denounce the faith, but these action harm the church. If Catholics only share what is popular, they will focus on what is vague and fluff, barely moving beyond that God is love.
Conversely, if Catholics collectively followed the preliminary steps I outlined above, they actions will result in an increased level of rebuke and persecution. Quite simply, if Catholics seek to be Catholic and reject secular culture, then there will be pushback from society. People with a strong religious mindset can be difficult to live around. They point out immoral actions, they stand for objective truths, they critique society and so forth. All of these actions can make people uncomfortable and result in an intensification of persecution against Catholics.
The pushback against a stronger Catholic mentality is not necessarily a bad thing. It will lead to unity among Catholics, as external threats typically help to heal internal divisions. Periods of persecution, historically, also led to internal growth. The church grew through the initial persecutions under the Roman Empire, and amid the strong anti-Catholicism in United States in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
In sum, very few Catholics think like Catholics. In order to restore a Catholic mindset, Catholics needs to break away from secular culture and embrace an abashedly Catholic way of thinking. This mentality would focus primarily on religious elements and not compromise on truths. Additionally, the church should have a tighter monitoring of membership and Catholic institutions, and in the face of these efforts, Catholic should expect renewed persecution.
Principles of a Catholic mentality
The above points highlight step towards reestablishing a Catholic mindset, but what are the basic principles of Catholic thinking? What elements of Catholicism are mentioned over and over again for the last two thousand years? What is present in the Bible and repeated in the works of the Church Fathers and saints? I postulate these seven essential points. All Catholics should…
1. Seek to imitate Jesus
2. Place God at the center of all activity
3. Have an eternal perspective
4. Respect tradition
5. Have a missionary zeal
6. Be mindful of good and evil
7. Love selflessly
In the following weeks, I will elaborate of each of these points. They are not the basic teachings of Catholicism. They are the context through which Catholics should see the world, and not merely political or global events. They should provide guidance on everyday events: how to raise my child, how do I divide my time, what media should I consume and countless other decisions we face on a daily basis.
August 07, 2016 06:27
By Dr. H. P. Bianchi
Victor Jauquet was one of the younger representatives of Our Lady of Victory in Arbutus at the 2016 March for Life. (Erik Zygmont/CR Staff)
Every year on the anniversary of Roe v. Wade, hundreds of thousands of people from around the country descend on Washington D.C. to petition for the end of abortion and showcase the strength and youthfulness of the pro-life movement. And every year, the weather is horrible. Without fail, it’s either freezing cold or snowing, and this past Friday was no exception.
After attending the march, one feels re-energized about the pro-life cause, and confident the tide has turned on this important moral struggle. That positive energy is dampened, however, when you see the complete secular media blackout of the event or the blatant dishonesty. That is, the national news rarely covers it, and if they do, they give equal time to the handful of pro-abortion protestors and drastically underreport the number of marchers.
Pro-life organizations have documented the lopsided media coverage, and the March for Life organization, under new and younger leadership, have made a point to increase media coverage.
A radical proposal
I do not intend to duplicate their critique of the media blackout, but propose a radical shift in the way the march is organized. That is, the march should be moved to another date. The traditional date - January 22 - is the anniversary of the Supreme Court decision, and many schools and organizations have made plans to attend the event on the January date.
It is always difficult to change, but the March for Life should be moved to an early fall date, for example on the last Saturday of September.
Peggy Nichols traveled from Dallas to walk in the March for Life, on crutches, with Our Lady of the Fields in Millersville. (Erik Zygmont/CR Staff)
No organization would intentionally plan for a major rally in January due to possibility of horrible weather. Some years, it was dangerously cold, and marchers sought out shelter in nearby museums and restaurants. I recall seeing parents desperately trying to warm their children near heaters after spending hours in the cold. The potential for cold weather makes it irresponsible to venture out with small children and attend the march as a family, which seems odd for a pro-life event.
This past Friday, numerous organizers cancelled their buses due to snow storm. Many that went were stuck in bad weather as they tried to return home. I followed the story online as buses from my alma mater, Franciscan University, were stranded on the Pennsylvania Turnpike.
Go for a million
During a warmer time of year and on a weekend, the March for Life should aim for one million participants. The media can only ignore crowds below a certain number. They can only diminish the numbers to a degree, and their favorite phrase is thousands of people. The more accurate estimates are: “Around 250,000 people attended the march until 2010. Estimates put the 2011 and 2012 attendances at 400,000 each, and the 2013 March for Life drew an estimated 650,000 people.”
Few rallies generate enough interest for a million participants, but the March for Life is nearly there. With a million marchers, the media would be hard pressed to ignore its historical significance.
Parish and family model
The goal of a million participants is reachable. The final push could be accomplished by a strategic plan to involve families. Marching in cold weather and on weekdays has prevented many pro-life families, both young and old, from attending. The move to a weekend in late September could provide a huge boost with that demographic. It could be easily facilitated by working with church leaders to ensure that every parish in the mid-Atlantic region has at least one bus attending the march (many already do).
If you have attended the march recently, you know the crowd is mostly composed of high school and college students, the only age groups crazy enough to brave the harsh conditions. Relying on schools as a means to bring young marchers makes a summer date impossible. The September date ensures that it is early enough in the school year that they could miss a Friday, as a travel day, without major repercussions. One individual from Baltimore informed me that the January date conflicts with midterms and preparations for Catholic Schools Week, making it difficult for local school children to attend the march.
One of the advantages of scheduling the march on a weekday in January was the presence of lawmakers, and undoubtedly, fewer members of Congress will be present on a weekend in the fall. I doubt any politician was swayed by the presence of pro-lifers, but a massive million-person march a little more than a month before elections would provide far more political pressure. In other words, there is more to be gained than lost.
Think outside the box
Strangely, the march may have gotten more coverage this year than in any past years. It was not the events that played out in the nation’s capital. When several buses were stranded in Pennsylvania, the passengers got out of the bus, built an altar of snow, and several priests concelebrated Mass on the edge of the snowy highway. Pictures of the Mass went viral, and the story was covered by numerous news programs across the country.
Involve individuals with huge social media followings. Matt Walsh, for example, is a local pro-life advocate, and he had the most-commentated Facebook post of 2015 (620,111 comments on one post)! He and others could generate attention for the march without the traditional networks.
Install a station of 20 to 30 buttons across Constitution Avenue, and have every marcher hit one as they pass, generating a running total of the exact number of participants. Something unusual, like a Mass on the side of a highway, might create more attention than hundreds of thousands of of marchers alone.
It is time
A few years back, I was caught in a snow storm driving back to Steubenville after attending the march. It was a stressful drive back, and fortunately, we make it back to campus safely. One car that left right after us got into an accident, but no one was badly injured. Parents are going to be more reluctant to let their children go to the march in inclement weather, especially with the thousands of students stuck in this year’s storm. It might be a sign that it’s time to move the march to another date, and the nation’s most important pro-life event will be stronger for it.
Life beats blizzard, say participants in 2016 March for Life
Why I am pro-life
January 29, 2016 10:24
By Dr. H. P. Bianchi
Young people operate Playstation controllers at a gaming exhibit. (CNS photo/Reuters)
Ever since taking a game theory course in college, I have been playing German-style board games. I knew I had a problem, an addiction of sorts, when my wife bought me a strategy game for Valentine’s Day last year. Nothing says a romantic evening like playing Settlers of Catan.
I admit it. I am a nerd.
It never occurred to me to integrate my love for games into my teaching until I attended a conference for community college leaders last spring. The gamification of education was one of the hot topics at the conference, and I eagerly attended several sessions, learning how theories on motivation, player types, and game mechanics can be used to increase student learning. In recent months, I delved deeply into the theory of gamification, and even had the opportunity to present on the topic at a regional conference. It was during this time I realized some practices could also be applied to the way we instruct others in the faith.
Foundational to gamification is the distinction between different types of motivations. First, extrinsic motivations are external rewards or punishments for performing an action. They would include money, grades, or gold stars as rewards, and spankings, timeouts, or fines as punishments. An intrinsic motivation is internal and based on personal fulfillment, such as engaging in an activity because it is fun, enjoyable or interesting.
Let’s examine some hypothetical classrooms to illuminate the distinction.
On the one hand, a teacher using largely extrinsic motivations might announce on the first day that grading will be done on a bell curve with a certain amount of As, Bs and so forth. Students would be assessed randomly and frequently, and the teacher would make little to no effort to engage students or try to interest them in the material. On the other hand, a teacher using purely intrinsic rewards would eliminate grades and not require attendance. Students attending the class would be free to discuss what they were interested in without any graded assignments.
From these examples, the strength and weakness of the two types of motivations is fairly evident. The extrinsic motivations are powerful, but their long term effectiveness is questionable, as students will dislike the subject matter. Students will learn in this type of class, but they will not enjoy it. In the second example, I cannot image the vast majority of students gaining any significant knowledge, but they would probably enjoy the class, if they attend it.
For Catholics, extrinsic motivations would be the fear of hell and purgatory, and the hope of heaven. Old prayer books even had small extrinsic rewards attached to certain prayers, for example a 500-day indulgence. An intrinsic motivation would be doing something purely out of love for God.
In games, education and faith formation, the goal is to move from extrinsic to intrinsic motivations. A well-designed “game” begins with small challenges and frequent extrinsic rewards. As the skill of the player increases, the challenges become more difficult and the extrinsic rewards decline.
This model makes perfect sense for any parent or teacher. With young children, parents use a lot of timeouts and rewards, but as children grow older, parents hope they will act properly on their own. Similarly in education, younger students are graded daily on assignments, and offered countless extrinsic rewards. Yet when I was taking doctoral classes, I was required to read lengthy monographs every week, and there was no grade attached to the assignments. In several seminars, I went through the entire semester without receiving any feedback (extrinsic motivation). At that point, it was assumed students would complete the assignments due to their interest in the subject matter (intrinsic motivation).
Now, we turn to faith formation in Catholic schools and religious education. From my observations, we seem to be doing the complete opposite of the proven model. At the youngest age, there is no mention of extrinsic rewards – hell, purgatory, or heaven. When heaven is mentioned, it is not as a reward for good actions, but a place where nearly everyone goes after they die. Instead, we offer only intrinsic motivations. That is, we instruct children to do religious actions out of love and because they are fulfilling.
In many ways, Catholic formation is like the class with no grades, optional attendance, and you get to do whatever you feel like. To be more specific, there is no sin, you do not have to go to church, and everyone goes to heaven in the end. It is no wonder young Catholics lack motivation.
Do not get me wrong. I understand that intrinsic motivations are superior, but they are most effective for master game players, doctoral students, and living saints, in their respective areas. Every game designer would laugh at the failed strategies of the Catholic Church. I would assume many Catholics are stuck in an elementary level of faith, yet we are giving them assignments appropriate for graduate students.
In this movement from one motivation to the next, we need to also realize that extrinsic motivations are a means to an end. As a parent, I am overjoyed when my children clean their rooms without a threat of punishment, but I am slightly disappointment, when afterwards, they ask for a treat for their work. As a teacher, I am annoyed by students who complain about an 88, stating that they always get As, but never once reference their interest in the content of the course. Likewise, at our judgment, God will look for more than a fear of going to hell. It is understandable that Catholic reformers in the last 50 years have targeted extrinsic rewards, but they made a grave error by eliminated them completely.
Lastly, game designers have discerned several different player types, and if you are curious, you can take a test online to determine your player type. Most games are designed for two player types: achievers who like to win game and who are highly motivated by extrinsic rewards (racing and shooting games), and explores who like to discover new things and who respond better to intrinsic motivations (simulations and role-playing games). Given that people respond to different motivators, the least the church can do is to balance the approaches that are used in faith formation.
Psychologists and game designers have studied the reasons why people play games, and they have used their knowledge to develop fun and addictive games.
Shouldn’t Catholics examine these theories? After all, people spend countless hours swiping candy or role playing on the Internet, but we cannot motivate people to spend an hour a week at church, when their eternal salvation in on the line.
June 30, 2015 12:21
By Dr. H. P. Bianchi
Last year was a rough time for humanity. Every time I read the news, I wondered is there a contest on who can outdo the next with a more vile and evil act?
I was often lost for words and had troubling making sense of the atrocities and injustices. Many intellectuals offered nuanced explanations, but I feel like one piece of the puzzle was missing: schadenfreude.
We don’t like to talk about schadenfreude. The concept is so antithetical to human nature that it is even disturbing to conceptualize it. We don’t even have a word for it in English (not counting epicaricacy), and thus, we have to borrow a German word. We are too embarrassed to talk about it, and even more ashamed to plead guilty of it.
Despite the lack of discourse surrounding the concept, schadenfreude is driving much of the racism, terrorism, warfare, and inequality in the world today. It is THE SIN of the modern world, though unconfessed by most. In short, schadenfreude is to take pleasure in other’s misfortunes, to delight in their suffering.
Everyone is guilty. It might be a small instance. You know that friend that has a perfect life - great house, great job, great family. When you see a Facebook posts about a minor hiccup in their life, you might let out a small smirk, relieved that they, too, have problems. I am Patriots fan, and I know most people in Maryland, including my wife, smile every time Tom Brady gets sacked. Most of this is harmless, but the problem is far more deep and profound, with every section of society having a different motivation.
The downtrodden. There are many, too many, people that live in poverty, that are isolated from society, or have been bullied. For a few individuals, instead of working to resolve their problems, they want other people to suffer with them. They want to create as much suffering as possible, often in their last act on earth. They bomb. They shoot. At schools. At marketplaces. Inflicting pain on the most innocent of people, oddly in an attempt to find some level of fulfillment. This is a very small percentage of people, but what disturbs me is the much larger group that approves of their actions.
Who are the people who “liked” Ismaaiyl Brinsley’s instagram post: “I’m Putting Wings On Pigs Today” before he executed two police officers? Who are the people that rejoice after a terrorist attack? Who are the people that idealize school shooters? They are people who believe they’re being systematically held down (perhaps, true) but are happy when one of “their people” seek revenge in a violent way against those oppressing them.
The middle. Historians blame the middle class (especially the petite bourgeoisie) for backing many of the racist movements in modern history. The Nazis, for instance, drew support from this group. Why? The middle requires someone below them, and it is the fear of the lower class surpassing them, which makes them susceptible to radical movement. In other words, there is a subtle effort to keep those below them, below them, and to keep the poor and uneducated, poor and uneducated. There is also an attempt to dehumanize the lower class as subhuman. I wonder, if these people smile when a “thug” is killed? Perhaps, the shooting was justified, but can’t we agree that is was a tragedy? Yet, some people enjoy another’s death. When a drone attack takes out a terrorist, but kills several innocent bystanders in the Middle East. They are many “respectable” people who secretly delight and think they deserved to die as well. Oddly, many people feel better when lower class individuals are mired in their misery.
The elite. Perhaps, the group with the most damning motive for schadenfreude is found in the upper echelon. The lower class seeks revenge, and the middle class props themselves up by schadenfreude. The elite, however, benefit from other’s suffering.
You have bankers bundling risky mortgages and then betting against them, making a profit when people foreclose. I have a special disdain for the political elites who make a career out of increasing “awareness” to a cause. They draw attention to human suffering, but do little to solve it. In fact, they remain in power and in the national limelight by perpetuating the problem; solving it would end their career. Moreover, many of these elites are seen as allies. Your banker. Your Representative. Your CEO. Do they really want to help you, or have we been fooled, as they benefit from prolonging the suffering of the masses?
Edmund Burke’s famous quote is often cited by cultural critics: “The only thing necessary for the triumph of evil is for good men to do nothing.” Oh, how I wish. Those would be better times, if “good” men did nothing. Now, we have the majority of people, I believe, rejoicing in evil acts, delighting in the suffering of others. We have gone so far off course. What can be done?
Schadenfreude is rooted in two principles. First, many people are consumed by their suffering. We think we have it so bad. Our financial situation is the worst. Our medical issues are the most painful. Everyone needs to visit the sick and help the poor. Take a mission trip to the developing world. If these are impractical, pick up a book about someone who has been persecuted or had a difficult life. You’ll begin to realize, that, yes, you have challenges, but they are manageable. And, yes, you have sufferings, but you also have many blessings.
Second, most people think other people don’t suffer. Sure, the sick and poor people suffer. Undoubtedly, we are moved when family members and friends are in pain. Yet, we need to realize that even wealthy, Hollywood actors who have unlimited money and fame suffer. They maybe are in more pain than you and I. Trust me, every person has their crosses, and we don’t need to add to them. In sum, we need to realize that everyone suffers, and that we don’t need anyone else’s suffering to increase to make us feel better.
As Christians, we have a unique relationship to suffering. Jesus suffered and died to save us. He, who did not have to suffer, died so that we might enjoy eternal life. We, thus, see suffering as something redemptive and positive. I see suicide bombers as the antithesis to the crucifixion. In Jesus’ last act, he took on the suffering of others, and the bombers, in their last act, seek to increase the suffering of others. We can limit schadenfreude by being less consumed by our lot, and focusing more on others.
As Christians, we are called to more. To imitate Christ, we need to do more than not delighting in other people’s suffering. We need to also seek out those who are in pain, and lighten their load, by carrying part it. I promise you that will give you true joy, and it will be far more profound and fulfilling than the delight found in schadenfreude.
February 09, 2015 01:13
By Dr. H. P. Bianchi
What is the first thought that enters your mind when you wake up? Is it what you watched last night on television or what you have to do at work that day? Is it your spouse or children? Do you reach for your phone and check Facebook or email? Or, do you thank God for the new day and resolve to live that day in union with God?
Our first thought of the day reveals a lot about our priorities, what is important to us, and what is on our mind. It also sets the tone of the day. That’s why the morning offering is so important to a vibrant spiritual life.
For years, I struggled making a morning offering. I tried it as a Lenten practice and a New Year’s resolution, but I failed numerous times. For those who know me, I am not a morning person. Don’t talk to me before I take my morning shower, and don’t expect a response until after my morning coffee. As a night person, I never struggled remembering to recite a night prayer, but I couldn’t develop the habit of a morning prayer.
Last New Year’s, I began the practice again, and I have not missed a day since. This time, I printed out a morning offering, and taped it to the outside of my shower door. Then, at the end of the shower, finally in a semi-awake state, I recite the morning offering.
You could do something similar, with the morning offering or another prayer. Download a saint of the day app for your phone, post a prayer on your bathroom mirror, or associate a prayer with the start of your morning commute. That way you’ll always be reminded to pray at a particular time of the day.
Below is a standard morning offering, and the one that is posted on my shower door. Print it out and place it somewhere prominent for your New Year’s resolution.
“O Jesus, through the Immaculate Heart of Mary, I offer You my prayers, works, joys and sufferings of this day for all the intentions of Your Sacred Heart, in union with the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass throughout the world, in reparation for my sins, for the intentions of all my relatives and friends, and in particular for the intentions of the Holy Father. Amen.”
December 30, 2014 04:14
By Dr. H. P. Bianchi
This Advent, I am anticipating the arrival of a little baby. Yes, Jesus, but in my peculiar case, I am expecting another baby in addition to Him. You see, my wife is pregnant, and has a scheduled C-section for December 26.
As the pregnancy drew on, people started to ask: “Are you getting excited?” Until recently, my response was: “Not really. I am too busy to be thinking about the baby.” Between my work, my wife’s work, driving our oldest son to school, soccer, and everything else, and caring for a 2-year-old, I didn’t have much time for contemplating the arrival of our little girl.
It might also have been denial. Part of me does not want to think about the sleepless nights, yet.
Last week, I finished grading the last finals of the semester and attended the required meetings before the winter break. I was finally done with school work, until I return back to work after the baby, and at last, I had some time to mentally prepare for our newest child. My wife and I settled on the name (we couldn’t agree on the middle name), and we asked our friends to be godparents. We took the boys to Build-a-Bear to help create a gift for their sister, and we got the baby items (millions of them!) in the right places. Things started to fall in place.
As I focused more time and effort on the baby, I started to get more excited. My anticipation grew accordingly, and it was a great feeling.
Every Advent, I hear homilies and read blogs about making time for Jesus. I know it’s true, but I brush it off as the same old Advent message. I never took it seriously until this year.
The past few months, I had the epiphany that I could be too busy to ignore my own unborn child. It is hard to miss my wife’s growing belly, and my child’s presence is undeniable when she starts the in-utero circus routine every night, just as my wife is about to fall asleep. Even with all these signs in my face, I was too occupied to think about her coming.
It was only when I took time to prepare for her, that her imminent birth became real to me. That is, when I started planning, when I saw the little clothes, when I installed the car seat, and so on. It was these activities that opened my heart to her, and allowed for a joyful anticipation to grow.
The parallel with the coming of Jesus is obvious. We can’t prepare for the coming of Jesus, if we are too busy. We can’t fully celebrate Christmas, if we don’t do anything in Advent. Every December, we need to get ready for Jesus, just like we would prepare for our own child.
We need to see the signs of his coming birth: the Advent wreath and empty manager scenes. We need to prepare our hearts: with Mass, prayer, and confession. We need to share the message: talk about the coming of Jesus with each other, especially our family members.
The more effort and time we put into Advent, the more our anticipation will grow and the more profound our joy will be on Christmas. That’s the lesson my unborn daughter taught me this Advent.
December 18, 2014 03:06
By Dr. H. P. Bianchi
Are you having a hard time finding a Christmas gift for someone on your list? Are you looking for a book that is physically beautiful but also inspiring? Then, you should checkout some products from the Sacred Art Series
by Bloomfield Books. There is a very practical Rosary Flip Book
to use as a devotional aid and a stunningly beautiful version of The Holy Gospels of St. Luke and St. John
. I have invited the editor of the series, William Bloomfield, to tell us more about the mission of the series and some of his products. I hope you enjoy the interview. (Use the code CATHVIEW by December 21 and get 15% off your Sacred Art Series Amazon purchase)
1) What is the Sacred Art Series?
The Sacred Art Series is a series of books I am publishing through my newly created family business, Bloomfield Books. In its most general sense, the series aims to help families grow in holiness. More particularly, the series uses sacred art to aid families in traditional Christian devotions such as the daily reading of Scripture and the family Rosary. The first book in the Sacred Art Series was the Rosary Flip Book, which was released last Fall. The second book, The Holy Gospels of St. Luke and St. John, was released on the Feast of St. Nicholas, December 6. Other books are currently being developed.
2) What inspired you to start the series?
A confluence of several things: First, My day job is as an assistant attorney general for the Michigan Attorney General. In this capacity, in the summer of 2013, I was assigned to the team of attorneys working to preserve the art collection of the Detroit Institute of Arts during the Detroit Bankruptcy. To my shame, I realized that I had not been to the DIA since I was a kid. Later in 2013, I rectified this and again toured the museum. I was thrilled to discover their beautiful medieval and Renaissance art, which includes pieces from Caravaggio, Bartolome Esteban Murillo, Gerard David, and even Fra Angelico.
Second, I had a conversation with my oldest niece, 8 and an avid reader, and I learned that she had already completed the Hobbit and the Narnia Chronicles and was already beginning The Lord of the Rings. This is all great; but I asked her whether she'd read the Gospels, and she had not. This got me thinking: is there a version of the Gospels that is suitable for a child? And as I began to look around, to my surprise, I realized that there was not.
Third, my wife and I received a set of old McGuffey readers from my wife's parents. We began using these with my son and I soon realized that I liked the way the books were laid out. The early books in the set--for beginning readers--used larger print and often included pictures. Gradually, as the series continued--and presumably, as the young reader's abilities developed--the books used smaller type and included more words per page. This seemed to be a winning formula.
Fourth, prayer. Not long before these discrete ideas began jostling around in my head, I attended an excellent Ignatian retreat with the religious order Miles Christi. My resolution from the retreat was a disciplined prayer life, which included regular recitation of the Rosary as I drove to and from work. One day, as I prayed, the idea formed: a book of the Gospels in a story-by-story format with large type and beautiful images of sacred art. And I was pretty sure that all that I needed was already in the public domain, and that I could self-publish using Createspace or some other print-on-demand publisher. Later, I determined to make the book truly beautiful by using a professional book printer.
3) What type artwork do you use in your publications? Why?
I don't claim to be an art historian or to have any real expertise in art, but I have always liked the beautiful churches and paintings and sculptures that I saw in Europe during my semester abroad. Beautiful art should be timeless and not subject to fads. And good art should appeal to all ages, both young and old; I've never really cared for the art in many children's books, which too often strikes me as childish. The art of the High Middle Ages and of the Renaissance met my criteria. Another advantage of art from this period, is that it has long been in the public domain. So when I began looking for art to use, I began here. I already knew of some great artists, like Michelangelo, Raphael, Caravaggio, and Fra Angelico, and I soon discovered other greats, like Titian, Duccio, Giotto, and Murillo. And as I found more and more good art, I realized that from my own schooling I knew so little, and that the Sacred Art Series would be a way of remedying this for my own children and those of others.
4) What is the Rosary Flip Book? How has it changed the way you and your family pray the rosary?
After I had essentially completed the manuscript for The Holy Gospels of St. Luke and St. John, I happened to go to New York City for a conference for work. Since some of the art from my book was located at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, my wife and I made it a point to visit the museum, which I had never been to. I was in awe to discover Fra Angelico's Crucifixion there, which I had not realized was at the Met. I also was delighted to discover a beautiful painting of the 15 Mysteries of the Rosary that had been created for a member of the Habsburg royal family. I had never seen anything like it. When I returned from the trip, I thought that the image could be used to create a devotional aid. And as my wife had given me a desktop calendar last year for Christmas, I thought this would make an excellent format.
My wife now prays at least a decade each morning with the kids as part of their homeschool routine. We also keep the 8 x 10 Rosary Flip Book displayed on our mantel throughout the day. So whether we're praying the Rosary or not, it provides an excellent reminder to pray and to meditate on the life of Christ and Mary. At work, I keep a 4 x 5 Rosary Flip book next to my computer monitor, and every day I flip to a new image. I really like it, and hope that others will to. I've also noticed that now, when I do pray the Rosary, whether I have the Rosary Flip Book at hand or not, I can easily call to mind the images for each of the mysteries, thereby aiding my prayer.
5) You have a book of the Gospels in Latin. Why Latin?
Yes, the Gospel of John is available for purchase as a softcover in Latin. Since I already had the manuscript prepared in English, it was quite easy to substitute the Latin Vulgate for the English text. So why not? My family routinely attends the Extraordinary Form of the Mass and I lead our small schola in the Latin Gregorian Chants. When I was a freshman at Steubenville, to satisfy my own curiosity regarding the liturgical changes following Vatican II, I read Sacrosanctum Concilium, Vatican II's Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy. There I read that Latin was to be preserved in the liturgy. Well, if the Church celebrated Mass for more than a thousand years in Latin and wants Latin to be preserved, who am I to disagree? I did not learn Latin as a child, but have now done some self-study as an adult. I love the beauty of the Latin and am impressed at how succinct it is. It also strikes me that anyone that learns Latin will greatly expand their English vocabulary and improve their grammar. So I'd like to help others to discover the beauty of Latin, and for me, one of the easiest places to read Latin is in the Gospels.
6) You have a new book coming out with the Gospels in English. What makes this book unique?
This book of the Gospels is the first to provide the actual text of the Gospels in a story-by-story format with beautiful images of sacred art. It bridges the gap between children's bibles and adult bibles. It is designed for children, but it is not childish. And I've left the entire book in the public domain, so anyone with an internet connection can freely download the text
7) Which translation did you use?
Because the most recent English translations are copyrighted, I used the Challoner Revision of the Douay Rheims, which is in the public domain and is approved by the Church. Because this book is designed for children, I updated the text to remove most thee's, thy's, thou's and -eth endings--but the substance remains that of Douay Rheims.
8) What are some of your future projects?
I am working on a Sacred Art Series Book of Saints and on a Stations of the Cross Flip Book. I'm also considering completing a second volume of the Gospels, which would include the Gospels of St. Matthew and St. Mark in a similar format. Whether I complete these projects will depend, in part, on the reception of the Sacred Art Series by the public.
9) What impact do you hope this series will have on the church, on individual Catholics?
I hope the Sacred Art Series will help families to grow in holiness, and ultimately, to become families of saints. More specifically, I hope children learn more about the life of Christ through the text of the Gospels and that they will absorb the teachings of the Gospels into their daily lives. I also hope that children (and their parents) will be inspired by these beautiful works of art and come to appreciate and know the works of these great artists. How tragic that I did not know of Duccio or Titian until I produced these books! May this tragedy not be repeated for the next generation of young Christians.
10) Your family members are involved in some other publications. What are they?
My sister Emily Ortega has now written two short novels for young Catholics (especially young Catholic Girls), I'm Bernadette and Christmas with Bernadette. Both are available at http://www.bernadettebooks.com/
William R. Bloomfield graduated from Franciscan University of Steubenville in 2001 and Ave Maria School of Law in 2004. Following law school, he clerked for U.S. District Court Judge Lawrence Zatkoff and U.S. 6th Circuit Court of Appeals Judge Ralph Guy. He then joined the U.S. Navy JAG Corps, where he served for 4 1/2 years, including a deployment to Iraq. For the last three years, he has worked as an assistant attorney general for the Michigan Department of Attorney General. William and his wife Anna have four children; their oldest is now six. They live in Lansing, Michigan.
December 08, 2014 03:59
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By Dr. H. P. Bianchi